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Mark Gross

Mark Gross

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
PO Box 999
Richland, WA 99352


Mr. Gross is a manager for the Materials and Devices Group in the Energy and Efficiency Division. He has 24 years experience at PNNL in materials and process development of vacuum deposited thin films and progressive experience managing 24 staff with a diverse background in materials development. He is also the principle investigator/program manager for several programs utilizing the PNNL developed thin film multi-layer barrier technology. He is a Co-Inventor / developer of the multi-layer barrier technology at PNNL. His activities include staff management, program management, program development, and relationship building. He holds 24 US patents, 54 International patents, several applications pending, and 35 publications / presentations. He has been recognized internally and externally for his research with 3 R&D 100 awards, 2 Federal Laboratory Awards for excellence in technology, multiple PNNL Key Contributor Awards for commercialization of intellectual property, and many PNNL Outstanding Team Performance Awards for exceeding project goals. He is a Distinguished Inventor of Battelle Memorial Institute.

Selected Patents

  • 5,681,615 - Vacuum Flash Evaporated Polymer Composites
  • 5,902,641 - Flash Evaporation Of Liquid Monomer Particle Mixture
  • 6,413,645 - Ultrabarrier Substrates
  • 6,492,026 - Smoothing And Barrier Layers On High Tg Substrates
  • 6,497,924 - Method of Making Non-Linear Optical Polymer
  • 6,522,067 - Environmental Barrier Material For Organic Light Emitting Device And Method Of Making
  • 6,544,600 - Plasma Enhanced Chemical Deposition of Conjugated Polymer
  • 6,548,912 - Semiconductor Passivation Using Barrier Coatings
  • 6,570,325 - Environmental Barrier Material for Organic Light Emitting Device and Method of Making
  • 6,573,652 - Encapsulated Display Devices
  • 6,613,395 - Method of Making Molecularly Doped Composite Polymer Material
  • 6,623,861 - Multilayer Plastic Substrates
  • 6,656,537 - Plasma Enhanced Chemical Deposition With Low Vapor Pressure Compounds
  • 6,811,829 - Method Of Making A Coating Of A Microtextured Surface
  • 6,858,259 - Plasma Enhanced Chemical Deposition For High And/Or Low Index Of Refraction Polymers
  • 6,866,901 - Method for Edge Sealing Moisture Barrier Films
  • 6,909,230 - Method of Making Molecularly Doped Composite Polymer Material
  • 6,923,702 - Method Of Making Encapsulated Display Devices
  • 6,962,671 - Multilayer Plastic Substrates
  • 7,198,832 - Method for Edge Sealing Barrier Films
  • 7,510,913 - Method of Making an Encapsulated Plasma Sensitive Device
  • 7,727,601 - Method for Edge Sealing Barrier Films

Research Interests

  • Thin film vacuum deposition process development for energy storage, moisture barrier, improved functionality, and new areas.
  • Vacuum deposition equipment design, fabrication, install and baseline.

Affiliations and Professional Service

  • Society for Vacuum Coaters
  • Society for Information Displays

Awards and Recognitions

  • 24 US granted patents, several applications pending
  • 54 international patents
  • 3 R&D 100 Awards
  • 2 Federal Laboratory Awards for Excellence in Technology
  • Several PNNL Outstanding and Exceptional Performance Awards
  • Several PNNL Key Contributor Awards
  • Distinguished Inventor of Battelle Memorial Institute

PNNL Patents

PNNL Publications


  • Wu B., Y. Yang, D. Liu, C. Niu, M.E. Gross, L.M. Seymour, and H. Lee, et al. 2019. "Good Practices for Rechargeable Lithium Metal Batteries." Journal of the Electrochemical Society 166, no. 16:A4141-A4149. PNNL-SA-145180. doi:10.1149/2.0691916jes


  • Chen H., S.S. Cartmell, Q. Wang, T.J. Lozano, Z. Deng, H. Li, and X. Chen, et al. 2014. "Micro-battery Development for Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System Applications." Scientific Reports 4. PNNL-SA-84994. doi:10.1038/srep03790


  • Nasybulin E.N., W. Xu, M.H. Engelhard, Z. Nie, S.D. Burton, L. Cosimbescu, and M.E. Gross, et al. 2013. "Effects of electrolyte salts on the performance of Li-O2 batteries." Journal of Physical Chemistry C 117, no. 6:2635-2645. PNNL-SA-91330. doi:10.1021/jp311114u


  • Gross M.E., E.S. Mast, J.P. Lemmon, and R.L. Pearson. 2012. Development of an Anode Stabilization Layer for High Energy Li-S Cells for Electric Vehicles. PNNL-21210. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Xu W., J.Z. Hu, M.H. Engelhard, S.A. Towne, J.S. Hardy, J. Xiao, and J. Feng, et al. 2012. "The Stability of Organic Solvents and Carbon Electrode in Nonaqueous Li-O2 Batteries." Journal of Power Sources 215. PNNL-SA-85748. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2012.05.021


  • Meduri P., H. Chen, X. Chen, J. Xiao, M.E. Gross, T.J. Carlson, and J. Zhang, et al. 2011. "Hybrid CFx-Ag2V4O11 as a high-energy, power density cathode for application in an underwater acoustic microtransmitter." Electrochemistry Communications 13, no. 12:1344-1348. PNNL-SA-81110. doi:10.1016/j.elecom.2011.08.006


  • Gross M.E. 2010. 25 Year Lifetime for Flexible Buildings Integrated Photovoltaics. PNNL-19630. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. 25 Year Lifetime for Flexible Buildings Integrated Photovoltaics
  • Olsen L.C., M.E. Gross, S.N. Kundu, and W.N. Shafaman. 2010. "Properties of Encapsulated CIGS Cells in 85 degrees C/85%RH." In The 33rd IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, PVSC '08, May 11-16, San Diego, California, 676-678. Piscataway, New Jersey:IEEE. PNNL-SA-60866. doi:10.1109/PVSC.2008.4922498


  • Olsen L.C., M.E. Gross, G.L. Graff, S.N. Kundu, X. Chu, and S. Lin. 2008. "Approaches to Encapsulation of Flexible CIGS Cells." In Proceedings of the SPIE: Reliability of Photovoltaic Cells, Modules, Components, and Systems, edited by NG Dhere, 7018, Paper No. 70480O. Bellingham, Washington:SPIE. PNNL-SA-61343. doi:10.1117/12.796104


  • Matson D.W., P.M. Martin, G.L. Graff, M.E. Gross, P.E. Burrows, W.D. Bennett, and M.G. Hall, et al. 2005. "Adhesion Issues with Polymer/Oxide Barrier Coatings on Organic Displays." In Adhesion Aspects of Thin Films, edited by KL Mittal, 2, 91-102. Utrecht:VSP. PNNL-SA-42917.


  • Martin P.M., G.L. Graff, M.E. Gross, P.E. Burrows, W.D. Bennett, E.S. Mast, and M.G. Hall, et al. 2003. "Micro- and Nanostructured Materials for Active Devices and Molecular Electronics." In 46th Annual Technical Conference Proceedings, 287-291. San Francisco, California:Society of Vacuum Coaters. PNNL-SA-38184.


  • Weaver M., L. Michalski, K. Rajan, M.A. Rothman, J.A. Silvernail, J.J. Brown, and P.E. Burrows, et al. 2002. "Organic Light-Emitting Devices with Extended Operating Lifetimes on Plastic Substrates." Applied Physics Letters 81, no. 16:2929-2931. PNWD-SA-5773.


  • Burrows P.E., G.L. Graff, M.E. Gross, P.M. Martin, M. Shi, M.G. Hall, and E.S. Mast, et al. 2001. "Ultrabarrier Flexible Substrates for Flat Panel Displays." Displays 22, no. 2:65-69. PNNL-SA-33452.
  • Weaver M.S., J.J. Brown, R.H. Hewitt, S.Y. Mao, L. Michalski, T. Ngo, and K. Rajan, et al. 2001. "Flexible Organic LEDs." Information Display 17, no. 5-6:26-29. PNNL-SA-35546.


  • Burrows P.E., G.L. Graff, M.E. Gross, P.M. Martin, M.G. Hall, E.S. Mast, and C.C. Bonham, et al. 2000. "Gas Permeation and Lifetime Tests on Polymer-Based Barrier Coatings." In Organic Light-Emitting Materials and Devices IV, Proceedings of SPIE, edited by Zakya H. Kafafi, 4105, 75-83. Bellingham, Washington:SPIE-The International Society for Optical Engineering. PNNL-SA-33956.
  • Graff G.L., M.E. Gross, M.G. Hall, E.S. Mast, C.C. Bonham, P.M. Martin, and M. Shi, et al. 2000. "Fabrication of OLED Devices on Engineered Plastic Substrates." In 43rd Annual Technical Conference Proceedings, denver April 15-20, 2000, 397- 400. Albuquerque, New Mexico:Society of Vacuum Coaters. PNNL-SA-33130.
  • Martin P.M., G.L. Graff, W.D. Bennett, J.W. Johnson, M.E. Gross, and D.C. Stewart. 2000. "Vapor Deposited Multifunctional Optical Coatings." In Recent Research Developments in Vacuum Science & Technology. 113-132. Kerala, :Transworld Research Network. PNNL-SA-31478.
  • Martin P.M., W.D. Bennett, G.L. Graff, M.E. Gross, and D.C. Stewart. 2000. "Large Area Optical Coatings." Vacuum Technology & Coating September. PNNL-SA-34626.
  • Shi M., G.C. Dunham, M.E. Gross, G.L. Graff, and P.M. Martin. 2000. "Plasma Treatment of PET and Acrylic Coating Surfaces: I. In-situ XPS Measurements." Journal of Adhesion Science and Technology 14, no. 120:1485-1498. PNWD-SA-5019.
  • Shi M., G.L. Graff, M.E. Gross, and P.M. Martin. 2000. "In situ and Real-Time Monitoring of Plasma-Induced Etching of PET and Acrylic Films." Plasmas and Polymers 4, no. 4:247-258. PNWD-SA-5020.


  • Affinito J.D., G.L. Graff, M. Shi, M.E. Gross, P.A. Mounier, and M.G. Hall. 1999. "A New Hybird Deposition Process, Combining PML and PECVD, for High Rate Plasma Polymerization of Low Vapor Pressure and Solid, Monomer Precursors." In PROCEEDINGS OF THE 42nd ANNUAL TECHNICAL CONFERENCE- SOCIETY OF VACUUM COATERS, 102-107. Albuquerque, New Mexico:Society of Vacuum Coaters. PNWD-SA-4621.
  • Affinito J.D., M.E. Gross, P.A. Mounier, M. Shi, and G.L. Graff. 1999. "Ultrahigh rate, wide area, plasma polymerized films from high molecular weight/low vapor pressure liquid or solid monomer precursors." Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology A--Vacuum, Surfaces and Films 17, no. 4:1974-1981. PNNL-SA-30579.
  • Shi M., G.L. Graff, J.D. Affinito, M.E. Gross, G. Dunham, P.A. Mounier, and M. Hall. 1999. "Plasma Surface Modification of Acrylic-Based Polymer Multilayer for Enhanced Ag Adhesion." In Society of Vacuum Coaters, 42nd Annual Technical Conference Proceedings: April 17-22, 1999, Chicago, 307-310. Albuquerque, New Mexico:Society of Vacuum Coaters. PNNL-SA-30510.

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